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In this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study.Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms. Some species such as certain bacteria, which lack histones, also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA.In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that more than 90% and 80%, respectively, of sexually active men and women will be infected with at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives (5).Around one-half of these infections are with a high-risk HPV type (6).They can be spread by vaginal, anal, and oral sex (1).Other HPV types are responsible for non-genital warts, which are not sexually transmitted.Many biological mechanisms support the hypothesis that estrogens might protect against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by influencing neurotransmission, increasing cerebral blood flow, modulating growth proteins associated with axonal elongation and blunting the neurotoxic effects of β-amyloid.On the contrary, clinical studies of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and cognitive function have reported controversial results, indicating a lack of efficacy of estrogens on cognition in post-menopausal women aged ≥65 years.

The guppy, To gain insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the guppy’s sexual dimorphism, we assembled a reference transcriptome combining genome-independent as well as genome-guided assemblies and analyzed sex-biased gene expression between different tissues of adult male and female guppies.

The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids.

During metaphase, when a chromosome is in its most condensed state, the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome.

We found tissue-associated sex-biased expression of genes related to pigmentation, signal transduction, and spermatogenesis in males; and growth, cell-division, extra-cellular matrix organization, nutrient transport, and folliculogenesis in females.

While most sex-biased genes were randomly distributed across linkage groups, we observed accumulation of ovary-biased genes on the sex linkage group, LG12.